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MAY-THURNER SYNDROME

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May-Thurner Syndrome (MTS) is a condition where the main blood vessel leading to the legs become narrow or starts to compress. MTS is also called as Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome or Cockett's syndrome.
The left iliac vein is the main blood vessel in the left leg, while the right iliac artery is the main blood vessel in the right leg. Sometimes, the right iliac artery lies on top of the left iliac vein. Due to this, a pressure is exerted on the left iliac vein and hence it starts to compress leading to MTS.

MTS is not genetic and occurs randomly. MTS doesn't have any symptoms. However, it can cause Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) in the left leg due to the pressure. In that case, the symptoms may be:

Leg pain/crampsSkin discolorationSwelling in legVisible enlargement of veins in the legTenderness or throbbing in the legMTS is more common in: FemalesWho just had babiesDehydrated peopleConsumes oral birth controlPeople prone to frequent blood clottingsMTS can be diagnosed by: UltrasoundP…

Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome

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Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS), a rare congenital vascular disorder that involves lymphatic anomalies, abnormal development of blood vessels and soft tissues and even bones.

Symptoms: Vein malformations: Varicose vein or swollen veins might be noticed. Depper abnormal veins might be observed in arms and legs. These malformations may become prominent with age.Lymphatic system malformations: Lymphatic swelling and fat deposition in the lower limbs. These malformations can be found in pelvis, spleen and the GI tract as well. The lymphatic fluid may be abnormally functioning.Port-wine stain: Appearance of pinkish-purple birthmarks or spots mainly on the legs or any other part of the skin. These are caused by excessive tiny blood vessels on the skin. These spots tend to darken or lighten with age.Bone and tissue overgrowth: Enlargement of the bones and tissues. This overgrowth is mainly restricted to one leg or arm. It begins in the infant stage. Causes:
Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome in a genet…

Advancements in Pacemakers

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Pacemakers are small electrical devices used to regulate irregular heartbeats or arrhythmias. It is usually placed in the chest or abdomen. The heart experiences arrhythmias where the heartbeats might be too fast (Tachycardia) or too slow (Bradycardia).

Purpose: A pacemaker is required when the heart's biological pacemaker (Sinus node) stops functioning or has some complications. Therefore, when the sinus node fails, the pacemaker takes over to regulate the heartbeat by sending electrical impulses.
Components: Modern pacemakers consist of 2 parts: Pulse generator and electrodes. The pulse generator includes a battery to power the pacemaker and electrical circuits required to regulate the heartbeat. The other part is the electrode which is used to send electrical impulses/signals to the heart.
Category: There are two common categories of pacemakers: On-demand - where the electrical signals will be generated only when required.Fixed-rate- where the electrical signals are generated continuou…

Atherosclerosis: The Silent Killer

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Atherosclerosis has different names in the medical field such as Arteriosclerosis, The Silent Killer, Blocked Arteries or arterioscleroticvascular disease.
Atherosclerosis occurs when the blood vessels narrow or blocks due to the build-up of plaque on the walls. In simple words, it is the accumulation of deposits in the blood vessels, preventing smooth blood flow. These deposits may be cholesterol, fatty substances, calcium, or other substances from the blood.
Arteries are the blood carriers from the heart to the body. They are lined with endothelium which helps in easy blood flow. Once this endothelium is damaged, atherosclerosis begins.
Normal
Atherosclerosis
When the endothelium is damaged and the plague starts to accumulate, the White Blood Cells (WBC) in the blood tries to destroy the plaque, but sometimes gets stuck in the deposits.
This plaque is capable of growing in size. Sometimes it stops growing causing no harm to the individual. However, in some cases, it ruptures, causing blood…

Cardiac Transplantation

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Cardiac Transplantation has been a common therapeutic solution for individuals with higher risk or end-stage heart failure. It is a process of replacing an ailing heart with a healthy heart. A healthy heart is received from a donor.

Despite the emerging technologies in the treatment of heart defects, heart transplantation has been carried out on every 6 out of 10 patients each year. A heart transplant is required by those patients with severe heart failure. The process is recommended only when all other treatments fail to aid the heart.

A recipient who applies for a heart transplant, if eligible is usually put in a transplant waiting list due to the limited availability of donors.
It is important to consider the compatibility of the donor's heart with the recipient's blood and tissue type. If the heart doesn't match, the immune system will reject the transplanted heart, a common complication for heart transplant patients.
Therefore, heart transplant patients are subjected to va…

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

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An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a swelling (aneurysm) of the aorta – the main blood vessel that leads away from the heart, down through the abdomen to the rest of the body.
The abdominal aorta is the largest blood vessel in the body and is usually about 2cm wide. However, it can swell up to 5.5cm and is known as the AAA condition.



Large aneurysms are rare but can become complicated. If a large aneurysm bursts, it causes huge internal bleeding and is usually fatal. The bulging occurs when the wall of the aorta weakens. Although what causes this weakness is unclear. Smoking and high blood pressure are considered to increase the risk of an aneurysm. The symptoms of AAA may be a sudden, deep pain in the abdominal region,  pulsating feeling near the belly button or prolonged back pain.

Share your views on other vascular diseases like AAA with us at our conference the "6th International Conference on Cardiology and Vascular Biology".

Visit our website to know more: Vascula…

Hypertension: The Boss

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Hypertension is a simple medical term where there is a continuous increase in blood pressure as the blood exerts high pressure onto the walls. The symptoms of high blood pressure might be a headache, fatigue, chest pain, etc. In simple words, Hypertension is known as High Blood Pressure. It can sometimes lead to serious complications which increases the risk of heart failure.
Acute Hypertension is called stress which is common in almost every individual. However, sometimes it can be caused due to any other diseases.


Normal blood pressure for a healthy human is 120/80 mmHg, but an individual suffering from hypertension might have a blood pressure of higher than 135/90 mmHg. If not treated properly, hypertension may lead to stroke, heart attack or other heart-related problems.
Risk Factors of Hypertension: Age: Hypertension usually is common in individuals above the age of 60 years since blood pressure tends to increases with the narrowing of arteries.Weight: Hight amount of fat deposition or…